Venture capitalists provide funds for long-term in any of the following modes
Equity – Most of the venture capital funds provide financial support to entrepreneurs in the form of equity by financing 49% of the total equity. This is to ensure that the ownership and overall control remains with the entrepreneur. Since there is a great uncertainty about the generation of cash inflows in the initial years, equity financing is the safest mode of financing. A debt instrument on the other hand requires periodical servicing of debt.
Conditional loan – From a venture capitalist~ point of view, equity is an unsecured instrument and hence a less preferable option than a secured debt instrument. A conditional loan usually involves either no interest at all or a coupon payment at nominal rate. In addition, a royalty at agreed rates is payable to the lender on the sales turnover. As the units picks up in sales levels, the interest rate are increased and royalty amounts are decreased.
Convertible loans – The convertible loan is subordinate to all other loans, which may be converted into equity if interest payments are not made within agreed time limit. Areas of Investment
Different venture groups prefer different types of investments. Some specialize in seed capital and early expansion while others focus on exit financing. Biotechnology, medical services, communications, electronic components and software companies seem to be attracting the most attention from venture firms and receiving the most financing. Venture capital firms finance both early and later stage investments to maintain a balance between risk and profitability.
In India, software sector has been attracting a lot of venture finance. Besides media, health and pharmaceuticals, agri-business and retailing are the other areas that are favored by a lot of venture companies.