Motivation and performance
Motivation, from the manager’s view, is the controlling of the work environment and the offering of rewards in such a way as to encourage extra performance from employees.
You may be wondering whether motivation is really so important. It could be argued that if a person is employed to do a job, he will do that job and no question of motivation arises. If the person doesn’t want to do the work, he can resign. So why try to motivate people? .
Motivation is about getting extra levels of commitment and performance from employees, over and above mere compliance with rules and procedures. If individuals can be motivated, by one means or another, might work more efficiently (and productivity will rise) or they will produce a better quality of work.
The case for job satisfaction as a factor in improved performance is not proven.
The key is to work ‘smarter’.
Motivation can be a negative process (appealing to an individual’s need to avoid unpleasantness, pain, fear etc) as well as a positive one (appealing to the individual’s need to attain certain goals).
Negative motivation is wielding the big stick: threatening dismissal or demotion, reprimand etc – it is negative reinforcement.
Positive motivation is dangling the carrot, and may be achieved by:
The offer of extrinsic rewards, such as pay incentives, promotion, better working conditions etc
Internal or psychological satisfaction for the individual (‘virtue is its own reward’), a sense of achievement, a sense of responsibility and value etc.
REWARDS AND INCENTIVES
A reward is a token (monetary or otherwise) given to an individual or team in recognition of some contribution or success.
An incentive is the offer or promise of a reward for contribution or success, designed to motivate the individual or team to behave in such a way as to earn it. (In other words, the ‘carrot’ dangled in front of the donkey!)
Not all the incentives that an organization can offer its employ-ees are directly related to monetary rewards. The satisfaction of any of the employee’s wants or needs maybe seen as a reward for -past of incentive for future -performance.
Different individuals have different goals, and get different things out of their working life: in other words they have different orientations to work. There are any number of reasons why a person works, or is motivated to work well.
The ‘human relations’ school of management theorists regarded work relationships as the main source of satisfaction and reward offered to the worker.
Later writers suggested a range of ‘higher’ motivations, notably:
Job satisfaction, interest and challenge in the job itself – rewarding work
Participation in decision-making – responsibility and involvement
Pay has always occupied a rather ambiguous position, but since people need money to live, it well certainly be part of the reward ‘package’ an individual gets from his work.