Kant’s ethical philosophy was that actions must be guided by universalisable principles that apply irrespective of the consequences of the actions. In addition an action can only be morally right if it is carried out as a duty, not in expectation of a reward. Knowing what to do in a situation will be determined by a set of principles that have been established by deductive reasoning, independent of, or before, the specifics of the decision in hand have been considered. For Kantian ethics the context and consequences of a decision are irrelevant. For Kant actions have moral worth only when they spring from recognition of duty, and a choice to discharge it. The duties were formulated around the concept of the ‘categorical imperative’. A categorical imperative refers to a command/principle that must be obeyed, with no exceptions.