There are various stances people may take in relation to their Perceptions values then different people may have different potential strengths and weaknesses in their approach to ethical issues in organizations. Fragmentation is the idea that things in the social world are disordered and disconnected. A fragmented view of values would see them as diverse, various and expressed through conflict between different views and opinions. There are no wholes in a fragmented social and ethical world. The contrary view is that Rokeach expressed: values, far from being fragmented, are simple and whole. Billig (1996) agreed this view but pointed out that this makes them difficult to apply to particular situations. Two reasons for this:
1.The simplicity and wholeness of values is broken by not knowing which value should be applied.
2. Simple and whole values can only provide general guidance. When it comes to dealing with specific situations values need interpretation.
Ambiguity can arise in organizations when simple values are inadequate because they cannot deal with new circumstances or are in conflict with other values. When ambiguity occurs those who seem to offer a resolution gain power and they bring with them their new values and ideologies (Weick, 2007).
Values can be seen as something that emerge from dynamic processes of sense-making as well as being one of the process inputs. Weick (1995) identified seven properties of sense-making:
1.Identity construction – when someone considers deceiving others at work by manipulating performance statistics they will consider how they see themselves.
2.Retrospective sense-making – according to Weick sense-making will occur after people have acted. Values follow actions and do not precede them.
3.Sense-making is done through enactment – people make sense of things by taking action. 4.Sense-making is social – if people talk with their colleagues about what they have done then the practice may become accepted through sense. Different groups have different perceptions of right and wrong.