Concentration and Memory Enhancement

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Concentration and Memory Enhancement

The nootropics in this section are purported or shown to enhance concentration or the recollection and formation of memories.

Cholinergics

Cholinergics are substances that affect the neurotransmitter acetylcholine or the components of the nervous system that use acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a facilitator of memory formation. Increasing the availability of this neurotransmitter in the brain may improve these functions. Cholinergic nootropics include acetylcholine precursors and cofactors, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors:
Precursors
Choline—precursor of acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine DMAE—precursor of acetylcholine
Meclofenoxate—probable precursor of acetylcholine, approved for Dementia and Alzheimer’s
Alpha-GPC—thought to be the only cholinergic that delivers choline to the brain across the Blood–brain barrier; sold under its chemical name
Cofactors
Acetylcarnitine—amino acid that functions in acetylcholine production by donating the acetyl portion to the acetylcholine molecule
Vitamin B5—cofactor in the conversion of choline into acetylcholine
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors
Galantamine
Ipidacrine (Neiromidin) is a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor used in memory disorders of different origins.
Lycoris radiata (Red Spider Lily)—natural source for galantamine
Huperzine A—also shown to act as an NMDA antagonist and appears to increase nerve growth factor levels in rats
Donepezil
Rosemary
Sage
Celastrus paniculatus
cannabis Due to its AChE-inhibiting properties, Cannabis appears to highten acetylcholine levels and therefore studies suggest it as a treatment for Alzheimer’s. Anxiolytic and analgesic found in cannabis. Neuroprotectant, possible Alzheimer’s prevention and possible neurogenesis inducer.
Reuptake inhibitors and enhancers Coluracetam—choline uptake enhancer
  1. Ginsenosides
  2. Agonists