Vitamins And Supplements

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Vitamins And Supplements

B Vitamins—may influence cognitive function through an effect on methylation and homocysteine levels, as excess homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and the B vitamins work to reduce homocysteine. However, although epidemiological evidence shows an association, two studies did not find B vitamin supplementation improves cognitive function, and another that found an association was criticized. In 2008 a systematic review of trials found “little evidence of a beneficial impact” from supplements on cognitive function later in life. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 168 70 year olds with mild cognitive impairment showed that a mix of B vitamins slowed the rate of brain atrophy; the slowing was related to a decrease in homocysteine levels.
Omega-3—linked to the maintenance of brain function. Omega-3’s provide docosahexaenoic acid, Important in the function and growth of nervous tissue. It is especially important during brain development. A study preformed in Norway demonstrated a potential link between Omega-3 consumption during pregnancy and child intelligence test scores. A cross-sectional population-based study of 1,613 subjects found an association between PUFA intake and decreased risk for impairment of cognitive function & cognitive speed.] Another study showed that boys with lower levels of Omega-3 had more behavior issues, such as ADHD.
Isoflavones—may be related to cognitive function. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study showed improvement in spatial working memory after administration of an isoflavone combination containing daidzein, genistein & glycitein. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of older, non-demented men & women, soy isoflavone supplementation improved performance on 6 of 11 cognitive tests, including visual-spatial memory and construction, verbal fluency and speeded dexterity; unexpectedly, the placebo group performed better on 2 tests of executive function.
Vitamin D—has positive effects on cardiovascular health and may have positive effects on cognitive function separately; the active form of Vitamin D seems to be involved in brain development and in adult brain function. In particular, metabolic pathways for Vitamin D in the hippocampus and cerebellum have been found. Epidemiological data show that higher Vitamin D levels (>20 ng/mL or 50nmol/L) are associated with better cognitive function, but do not seem to be associated with better memory performance. Vitamin D has also been shown to be necessary in the production of Dopamine
Vitamin C— has been shown to help reduce brain injury and also reduce the amount of Cortisol in the body. High levels of Cortisol have been linked to Alzheimer’s Disease.
Vitamin E—protects neurons from injury caused by Free Radicals.