Some time-management literature stresses tasks related to the creation of an environment conducive to “real” effectiveness. These strategies include principles such as:
“get organized” – the triage of paperwork and of tasks “protecting one’s time” by insulation, isolation and delegation
“achievement through goal-management and through goal-focus” – motivational emphasis “recovering from bad time-habits” – recovery from underlying psychological problems, e.g. procrastination
Writers on creating an environment for effectiveness refer to such matters as having a tidy office or home for unleashing creativity, and the need to protect “prime time”. Literature also focuses on overcoming chronic psychological issues such as procrastination.
Excessive and chronic inability to manage time effectively may result from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Diagnostic criteria include a sense of underachievement, difficulty getting organized, trouble getting started, many projects going simultaneously and trouble with follow-through. Some authors focus on the prefrontal cortex which is the most recently evolved part of the brain. It controls the functions of attention-span, impulse-control, organization, learning from experience and self-monitoring, among others. Some authors argue that changing the way the prefrontal cortex works is possible and offers a solution.