Job carving involves melding job seeker and employer needs through systematic workplace analysis and person -centred career planning. Contrary to popular belief, job carving does not begin with the employer or the worksite. Instead, carving is based on the concept of using a person’s unique contributions and matching those to an employment setting.
Job carving is the act of analysing work duties performed in a given job and identifying specific tasks that might be assigned to an employee with severe disabilities. While full-time employment is certainly a reasonable outcome, job carving, or job creation, is typically utilized with individuals in Supported Employment who, for a variety of reasons, including physical disability, psychiatric illness, intellectual capacity, medical fragility, available supports, and choice, may not be in the market for full-time employment (Griffin & Winter, 1988).
The utmost care must be taken not to create jobs that further devalue people with disabilities by physically separating them from other workers or by having them perform tasks that are considered bothersome, dangerous, or unpleasant. There are many variables associated with the job carving process. For instance, the marketing approach in job carving should be deliberate and businesslike. Job developers should approach potential employers as diagnosticians, ready to determine needs and offer solutions to productivity challenges. Another variable is consumer employment objectives. No job development effort can take place without a thorough understanding of what type of work is suitable and acceptable. The attitude of co-workers is also an issue. In creating employment opportunities, the “corporate culture”, or all those unwritten rules of a particular workplace, must be taken into consideration.
Generally, workers have specific jobs to do, and these jobs have required job descriptions. In many firms today, however, jobs are becoming more amorphous and more difficult to define. In other words, the trend is towards de-jobbing. The ongoing trend in organisations which are becoming less focused on jobs and more focused on employee activities that are driven by participation in teams or the ability to accomplish changing objectives rather than simply fulfilling the requirements of an existing job. This comes from the realisation that focusing jobs as the focal point for employee activities is not very effective.
Instead of traditional, pyramid -shaped organisations with seven or more management layers, flat organisations with just three or four levels are more prevalent. Most large firms have already cut their management layers from a dozen to six or fewer. Because the remaining managers have more people reporting to them, they can supervise them less, so the jobs of subordinates end up bigger in terms of both breadth and depth of responsibilities. Work Teams: Managers increasingly organise tasks around teams and processes rather than around specialised functions.
The Boundaryless Organization
In such type of organisation, the focus is on defining the project or task at hand in terms of the overall best interests of the organisation, thereby further reducing the idea of a job as a clearly defined set of duties.
Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed. The principles of specialised work do not work here. Jobs can be re-engineered in many ways.