Training methods are usually classified by the location of instruction. On the job training is provided when the workers are taught relevant knowledge, skills and abilities at the actual workplace; off-the-job training, on the other hand, requires that trainees learn at a location other than the real workspot. Some of the widely used training methods are listed below.
Job Instruction Training (JIT)
The JIT method (developed during World War II) is a four-step instructional process involving preparation, presentation, performance try out and follow up. It is used primarily to teach workers how to do their current jobs. A trainer, supervisor or co-worker acts as the coach. The four steps followed in the JIT methods are:
1. The trainee receives an overview of the job, its purpose and its desired outcomes, with a clear focus on the relevance of training.
2. The trainer demonstrates the job in order to give the employee a model to copy. The trainer shows a right way to handle the job.
3. Next, the employee is permitted to copy the trainer’s way. Demonstrations by the trainer and practice by the trainee are repeated until the trainee masters the right way to handle the job.
4. Finally, the employee does the job independently without supervision.
Coaching is a kind of daily training and feedback given to employees by immediate supervisors. In coaching, the supervisor explains things and answers questions; he throws light on why things are done the way they are; he offers a model for trainees to copy; conducts lot of decision making meetings with trainees; procedures are agreed upon and the trainee is given enough authority to make divisions and even commit mistakes.
When to use coaching usefully? Coaching could be put to good use when:
1. an employee demonstrates a new competency
2. an employee expresses interest in a different job within the organisation
3. an employee seeks feedback
4. an employee is expressing low morale, violating company policies or practices or having performance problems
5. an employee needs help with a new skill following a formal training programme.
This kind of training involves the movement of trainee from one job to another. This helps him to have a general understanding of how the organisation functions. The purpose of job rotation is to provide trainees with a larger organisational perspective and a greater understanding of different functional areas as well as a better sense of their own career objectives and interests. Apart from relieving boredom, job rotation allows trainees to build rapport with a wide range of individuals within the organisation, facilitating future cooperation among departments. The cross-trained personnel offer a great amount of flexibility for organisations when transfers, promotions or replacements become inevitable.
Apprentices are trainees who spend a prescribed amount of time working with an experienced guide, coach or trainer. Assistantships and internships are similar to apprenticeships because they also demand high levels of participation from the trainee. One important disadvantage of the apprenticeship methods is the uniform period of training offered to trainees.
People have different abilities and learn at varied rates.
In this method, trainees are asked to solve an actual organisational problem. The trainees have to work together and offer solution to the problem. Assigning talented employees to important committees can give these employees a broadening experience and can help them to understand the personalities, issues and processes governing the organisation. It helps them to develop team spirit and work unitedly toward common goals.
Behaviourally Experienced Training
Some training programmes focus on emotional and behavioural learning. Here employees can learn about behaviour by role playing in which the role players attempt to act their part in respect of a case, as they would behave in a real-life situation. Business games, cases, incidents, group discussions and short assignments are also used in behaviourally-experienced learning methods.