Training is most effective when it is planned, implemented and evaluated in a systematic way. Unplanned, uncoordinated and haphazard training efforts greatly reduce the learning that can be expected. A training process includes the following steps:
Identification of Objectives
The first thing is to identify the business objectives. This step provides the direction for which way organisation has to move. Thus the business plan shows the activities to be carried out to achieve the said objectives.
Determining Training Needs
Training efforts must aim at meeting the requirements of the organisation (long-term) and the individual employees (shortterm). Training needs can be identified through the following types of analysis.
1. Organisational analysis:
It involves a study of the entire organisation in terms of its objectives, its resources, the utilisation of these resources, in order to achieve stated objectives and its interaction pattern with environment. The important elements that are closely examined in this connection are: (a) Analysis of objectives: This is a study of short term and long term objectives and the strategies followed at various levels to meet these objectives. (b) Resource utilisation analysis: How the various organisational resources (human, physical and financial) are put to use is the main focus of this study. The contributions of various departments are also examined by establishing efficiency indices for each unit. This is done to find out comparative labour costs, whether a unit is under-manned or over-manned. (c) Environmental scanning:Here the economic, political, socio-cultural and technological environment of the organisation is examined. (d) Organisational climate analysis: The climate of an organisation speaks about the attitudes of members towards work, company policies, supervisors, etc. Absenteeism, turnover ratios generally reflect the prevailing employee attitudes. These can be used to find out whether training efforts have improved the overall climate within the company or not.
2. Task or role analysis:
This is a detailed examination of a job, its components, its various operations and conditions under which it has to be performed. The focus here is on the roles played by an individual and the training needed to perform such roles. After collecting the information, an appropriate training programme may be designed, paying attention to (i) performance standards required of employees, (ii) the tasks they have to discharge, (iii) the methods they will employ on the job and (iv) how they have learned such methods, etc.
3. Person analysis:
Here the focus is on the individual in a given job. There are three issues to be resolved through manpower analysis. First, we try to find out whether performance is satisfactory and training is required. Second, whether the employee is capable of being trained and the specific areas in which training is needed. Finally, we need to state whether poor performers (who can improve with requisite training inputs) on the job need to be replaced by those who can do the job.
Determining Content and Schedule of Training
According to the nature of the training, contents and schedule of training are specified. Generally training cover two aspects: technical and behavioural. As per requirement of the training participants, facilities, instructors and aids are decided on.
Coordination of Training Programme
Very often HR department coordinates the training programme. It involves preparing the list of participants, schedules, programmes etc. and arranging faculty and support services like refreshment, training aids and documentation of programmes.