A Case Study on Behaviour of Individuals:
Case Study : Mr.Bajaj has been a production supervisor for eight years. He came up through the ranks and is known as a tough but hardworking supervisor. Mr.Dikshit has been a production supervisor for about the same length of time and also came up through the ranks. Dikshit is known as a nice, hardworking boss. Over the past several years these two supervisors sections have been head and shoulders above the other six sections on hard measures of performance(Number of units produced). This is true despite the almost opposite approaches tow have taken in handling their workers. Mr.Bajaj explained his approach as follows:
The only way to handle workers is to come down hard on them whenever they make a mistake. In fact, I call them together every once in a while and give them heck whether they deserve it or not, just to keep them on their toes. If they are doing a good job, I tell them that‘s what they‘re getting paid for. By taking this approach, all I have to do is walk through my area and people start working like mad.
Dikshit explained his approach as follows:
I don‘t believe in that human relations stuff of being nice to workers. But I do believe that a worker deserves some recognition and attention from me if he or she does a good job. If people make a mistake, I don‘t jump on them. I feel that are all entitled to make some errors. On the other hand, I always do point out what the mistake was and what they should have done, and as soon as they do it right, I let them know it. Obviously, I don‘t have time to give attention to everyone doing the thing right, but deliberately try to get around to people doing a good job every once in a while. [A Case Study on Behaviour of Individuals]
Although Mr.Bajaj‘s section is still right at the top along with Dikshit‘s section in units produced, personnel records show that there has been three times more turnover in Bajaj‘s section than in Dikshit‘s section, and the quality control records show that Bajaj‘s section has met quality standards only twice in the last six years, while Dikshit‘s has missed attaining quality standards only once in the last six years. [A Case Study on Behaviour of Individuals]
Both these supervisors have the similar background. On the basis of learning theory , how can u explain their opposite approaches to handling people?
Analyze the case in Case Study by applying Operand conditioning or Reinforcement theory?
Consider the implications of reinforcement theory as applied to the development of programmed instruction. Prepare a module from any area of study in the form of programmed learning keeping in mind the following:
Practice should take the form of a question (stimulus) – answer (response) frames which expose the student to the subject in gradual step.
Require that the learner makes a response for every frame and receives immediate feedback.
Try to arrange the difficulty of the questions so the response is always correct and hence a positive reinforcement
Ensure that good performance in the lesson is paired with secondary reinforces such as verbal praise, prizes, and good grades.
Business Schools Expand MBA’s for Executives
Lead Story-dateline: The Wall Street Journal, September 11, 2001.
Today, more and more mid-level managers interested in future career advancement are preparing now. One option that seems to offer many of them the best of both worlds is to continue working full time while pursuing their MBA‘s on a part-time basis. Indeed, many universities, including some Ivy League institutions, now offer Executive MBA programs that are designed to meet the needs of current executives who don‘t already have their MBA‘s.
Columbia University is teaming up with the University of California at Berkley to create a bi-coastal MBA program. The University of Pennsylvania‘s Wharton West campus in San Francisco recently opened with 67 executive MBA students. Other universities on board with Executive MBA programs include the University of Michigan, the University of Notre Dame, the University of Chicago, and New York University. Many schools are forming alliances to expand their programs internationally. According to the AACSB International, which accredits business schools, approximately 15,000 students were enrolled in Executive MBA programs at 160 U.S. schools last year.
The Executive MBA program is considered the fastest-growing and most lucrative area of business education. Laura Tyson, (former) dean of Berkeley‘s Haas School of Business, believes that the Executive MBA program and other part-time programs are generating more growth for many schools than traditional full-time MBA programs, perhaps because many individuals are less willing to sacrifice two years of work experience and income to pursue a degree full time. ―The major growth for the standard MBA program is over,‖ says Tyson, who believes that the Executive MBA program and other alternative delivery systems should be expanded. Many classes are, in fact, being taught on weekends and via the Internet.
A large number of firms support the Executive MBA concept by sponsoring their valued and promising managers. The part-time programs, which typically last two years, can cost as much as $115,000 per student.
Not all Ivy League schools, however, buy into the Executive MBA program concept. Both Harvard and Stanford, after considering the concept, decided against offering Executive MBA degrees. They both conclude that part-time programs ORGANISATION don‘t offer the same standard of education that full-time students receive. ―People need to be in residence here full time because much of the education here happens outside the classroom between students,‖ states Harvard Business School
Talking it Over and Thinking it Through
Do you believe there is a great deal of appeal for Executive MBA programs? Please explain your answer.
Current trends in higher education reflect that more courses will be offered via non-traditional delivery systems such as weekend courses, fast track courses, telecourses (instruction offered via the television), and Internet courses. Many of these course offerings are designed to help meet the academic and scheduling needs of working adults. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages for students who enroll in courses that are offered using a non-traditional format?
Thinking About The Future
Although Executive MBA programs are growing rapidly, some concerns do exist for universities that offer them. Wharton, for example, is concerned that some programs offer condensed curriculum and class time while relying heavily on the Internet. David Schmittlein, deputy dean at Wharton, is concerned that some Executive MBA programs are cheapening the degree‘s image.‖ He emphasizes the importance of offering the same amount of class time and course units as a full-time MBA program.
Others are concerned that a weaker economy will adversely affect company sponsorship. Although some don‘t believe that the high costs for Executive MBA programs are justifiable, executives at Southern Methodist University‘s Cox School of Business in Dallas believe that job insecurity is a motivating factor for many of their Executive MBA enrollees. At SMU, enrollment this year is up from last year, and approximately one-third of the students are paying the $55,000 cost without corporate assistance. Marci Armstrong, SMU‘s Associate Dean of Masters programs, sums up current trends in the Dallas area: ―Managers are getting nervous as they approach their 40th birthday and see all those fresh 28-year-old MBA graduates coming aboard. They want to be sure they make it through the next round of belt-tightening.‖