A Case Study on Behavior of Individuals

A Case Study on Behavior of Individuals

A Case Study on Behaviour of Individuals:

Case Study : Mr.Bajaj has been a production supervisor for eight years. He came up through the ranks and is known as a tough but hardworking supervisor. Mr.Dikshit has been a production supervisor for about the same length of time and also came up through the ranks. Dikshit is known as a nice, hardworking boss. Over the past several years these two supervisors sections have been head and shoulders above the other six sections on hard measures of performance(Number of units produced). This is true despite the almost opposite approaches tow have taken in handling their workers. Mr.Bajaj explained his approach as follows:
The only way to handle workers is to come down hard on them whenever they make a mistake. In fact, I call them together every once in a while and give them heck whether they deserve it or not, just to keep them on their toes. If they are doing a good job, I tell them that‘s what they‘re getting paid for. By taking this approach, all I have to do is walk through my area and people start working like mad.

Dikshit explained his approach as follows:

I don‘t believe in that human relations stuff of being nice to workers. But I do believe that a worker deserves some recognition and attention from me if he or she does a good job. If people make a mistake, I don‘t jump on them. I feel that are all entitled to make some errors. On the other hand, I always do point out what the mistake was and what they should have done, and as soon as they do it right, I let them know it. Obviously, I don‘t have time to give attention to everyone doing the thing right, but deliberately try to get around to people doing a good job every once in a while. [A Case Study on Behaviour of Individuals]
Although Mr.Bajaj‘s section is still right at the top along with Dikshit‘s section in units produced, personnel records show that there has been three times more turnover in Bajaj‘s section than in Dikshit‘s section, and the quality control records show that Bajaj‘s section has met quality standards only twice in the last six years, while Dikshit‘s has missed attaining quality standards only once in the last six years.  [A Case Study on Behaviour of Individuals]
  • Both these supervisors have the similar background. On the basis of learning theory , how can u explain their opposite approaches to handling people?
  • Analyze the case in Case Study by applying Operand conditioning or Reinforcement theory?
Consider the implications of reinforcement theory as applied to the development of programmed instruction. Prepare a module from any area of study in the form of programmed learning keeping in mind the following:
  1. Practice should take the form of a question (stimulus) – answer (response) frames which expose the student to the subject in gradual step.
  2. Require that the learner makes a response for every frame and receives immediate feedback.
  3. Try to arrange the difficulty of the questions so the response is always correct and hence a positive reinforcement
  1. Ensure that good performance in the lesson is paired with secondary reinforces such as verbal praise, prizes, and good grades.

Business Schools Expand MBA’s for Executives

Lead Story-dateline: The Wall Street Journal, September 11, 2001.

Today, more and more mid-level managers interested in future career advancement are preparing now. One option that seems to offer many of them the best of both worlds is to continue working full time while pursuing their MBA‘s on a part-time basis. Indeed, many universities, including some Ivy League institutions, now offer Executive MBA programs that are designed to meet the needs of current executives who don‘t already have their MBA‘s.
Columbia University is teaming up with the University of California at Berkley to create a bi-coastal MBA program. The University of Pennsylvania‘s Wharton West campus in San Francisco recently opened with 67 executive MBA students. Other universities on board with Executive MBA programs include the University of Michigan, the University of Notre Dame, the University of Chicago, and New York University. Many schools are forming alliances to expand their programs internationally. According to the AACSB International, which accredits business schools, approximately 15,000 students were enrolled in Executive MBA programs at 160 U.S. schools last year.
The Executive MBA program is considered the fastest-growing and most lucrative area of business education. Laura Tyson, (former) dean of Berkeley‘s Haas School of Business, believes that the Executive MBA program and other part-time programs are generating more growth for many schools than traditional full-time MBA programs, perhaps because many individuals are less willing to sacrifice two years of work experience and income to pursue a degree full time. ―The major growth for the standard MBA program is over,‖ says Tyson, who believes that the Executive MBA program and other alternative delivery systems should be expanded. Many classes are, in fact, being taught on weekends and via the Internet.
A large number of firms support the Executive MBA concept by sponsoring their valued and promising managers. The part-time programs, which typically last two years, can cost as much as $115,000 per student.
Not all Ivy League schools, however, buy into the Executive MBA program concept. Both Harvard and Stanford, after considering the concept, decided against offering Executive MBA degrees. They both conclude that part-time programs ORGANISATION don‘t offer the same standard of education that full-time students receive. ―People need to be in residence here full time because much of the education here happens outside the classroom between students,‖ states Harvard Business School
Dean Kim Clark.

Talking it Over and Thinking it Through

Do you believe there is a great deal of appeal for Executive MBA programs? Please explain your answer.
Current trends in higher education reflect that more courses will be offered via non-traditional delivery systems such as weekend courses, fast track courses, telecourses (instruction offered via the television), and Internet courses. Many of these course offerings are designed to help meet the academic and scheduling needs of working adults. What are some of the advantages and disadvantages for students who enroll in courses that are offered using a non-traditional format?

Thinking About The Future

Although Executive MBA programs are growing rapidly, some concerns do exist for universities that offer them. Wharton, for example, is concerned that some programs offer condensed curriculum and class time while relying heavily on the Internet. David Schmittlein, deputy dean at Wharton, is concerned that some Executive MBA programs are cheapening the degree‘s image.‖ He emphasizes the importance of offering the same amount of class time and course units as a full-time MBA program.
Others are concerned that a weaker economy will adversely affect company sponsorship. Although some don‘t believe that the high costs for Executive MBA programs are justifiable, executives at Southern Methodist University‘s Cox School of Business in Dallas believe that job insecurity is a motivating factor for many of their Executive MBA enrollees. At SMU, enrollment this year is up from last year, and approximately one-third of the students are paying the $55,000 cost without corporate assistance. Marci Armstrong, SMU‘s Associate Dean of Masters programs, sums up current trends in the Dallas area: ―Managers are getting nervous as they approach their 40th birthday and see all those fresh 28-year-old MBA graduates coming aboard. They want to be sure they make it through the next round of belt-tightening.‖

Case Study

Sources in Case Study

Also, Ronald. Business Schools Expand MBA‘s for Executives,‖ The Wall Street Journal, September 11, 2001.
Training Programs Often Miss the Point on the Job

Lead Story-dateline: The New York Times, March 5, 2000

Nanette Solow remembers the day she stood in a row with 10 co-workers, tucked an orange under her chin and transferred it to space beneath a colleague‘s chin. The goal was to move the orange down the entire line in less than five minutes.‖ Do sounds like a goofy game at a company picnic? How about an employee Christmas party? Not quite! As it turns out, this is actually one of many such ―games‖ used in various training programs being run at an increasingly large percentage of American corporations (70 percent at the present time). Other high jinks include paintball wars, fighter-pilot simulations, and driving a car while blindfolded-a course offered by BMW at its Performance Center in Spartanburg, S. C. So, what‘s the purpose of such training? If you were to ask that question of management in the companies employing such programs, they might say that the purpose of these exercises is to build leadership skills, teamwork, and company bonding. At the conclusion of such programs, participants might agree and be quick to say that they enjoyed their experience and found it very worthwhile. Or, they might indicate that they hated the program and found it totally useless. In general, participants tend either to love or hate these kinds of experiences there is no middle of the road.  [A Case Study on Behaviour of Individuals]
While it is important to note how employers and employees feel about these programs, a more important question might relate to whether or not there is any evidence that these programs actually work. While there is no conclusive evidence, there seems to be an emerging consensus that the benefits of this type of training are seldom achieved long-term. First, there seems to be little connection between the training and what people experience on a day-to-day basis on-the-job. During the course of a normal business day, employees rarely find themselves under paintball attack or preparing to engage their competitors in air-to-air combat. Finally, I have never seen anyone driving into the company parking lot while blindfolded-although they seem to drive as if they were blindfolded! Another problem with these programs is that even when lessons are learned they are rarely reinforced back on the job. For example, economic pressures often require that companies abandon principles that they try to instill during training in favor of short-term fixes and some of these interventions destroy teamwork and loyalty (e.g., downsizing, layoffs, reengineering, etc.). As suggested in the article, ―as employees witnessed team members being axed to their left and right, they ultimately lost trust and rapport with management, and they undermined their entire investment with us. [A Case Study on Behaviour of Individuals]