Leadership, as a process, shapes the goals of a group or organization, motivates behavior toward the achievement of those goals, and helps define group or Organizational Culture. It is primarily a process of influence.
Leadership versus Management :
Although some managers are able to influence followers to work toward the achievement of organizational goals, the conferring of formal authority upon a manager does not necessarily make that individual a leader. Yes, that individual has authority, but whether or not they are able to influence their subordinates may depend on more that just that authority.
Not all leaders are managers, and similarly, not all managers are leaders. Within a team environment, manager and leader are simply roles taken on by members of the team. Most teams require a manager to manage‖ coordinate, schedule, liaise, contact, organize, procure — their affairs. The functions of this role may well be quite different from those of the leader (to motivate followers towards the achievement of team goals). Management roles need not presuppose any ability to influence. A leader, on the other hand, must have the ability to influence other team members.
Styles of Leadership
Dynamic and effective leadership is considered by all to be one of the major requirements of successful management. Leader- ship, in simplest of terms, is the ability to persuade others to seek defined goals and objectives enthusiastically.
Leadership style is the pattern of behaviors used by the leader to influence the behavior of others.
Increasing Performance Potential
Situational leadership as described so far, is helpful for a practicing manager trying to determine what leadership style to use with the follower in a particular situation, on a particular task. Leader should not only diagnose the development level of his followers but also has the responsibility to enable the subordinate to grow to increase this development level.
This is done through training.
Tell the person(s) what you want them to do. Show the person(s) what you want them to do. Let them try.
Observe performance Manage consequences Handling Regression
Just as improvement in performance instructs forward shifts in style along the curve, decreases in performance necessitates a shift backward in leadership style along the bell-shaped curve from delegating to directing.
Effective managers know their subordinates well enough to flexibly manage ever-changing demands upon their organizations. As responsibilities and tasks are assigned to individuals and groups, Development level must be assessed. The manager should then vary his/her leadership style in response to the individual‘s development level. It should be kept in mind that over time subordinates and subordinate groups develop their own pattern of behavior and ways of operating, i.e. norms, customs, traditions etc. While a manager may use a specific style for the work group as a group, that manager may quite often have to behave differently with individual subordinates because they are at different levels of development. Whether working with a group or individual, changes in leadership style forward from S1 to S2, S3, S4 and backward from S4 to S3, S2, S1 must be gradual. It is this shifting forward and backward in style that makes situation leadership a truly developmental model for both managers and subordinates.
Management and Leadership
Though the terms ‗management‘ and ‗leadership‘ are often used interchangeably there are certain fundamental differences between these two. As Belbin (1997) pointed out, leadership does not necessarily take place within the hierarchical structure of the organization and there is a clear implication that leadership is not part of the job but a quality that can be brought to a job. Hollingsworth (1989) lists at least six fundamental differences between management and leadership
A manager administers, but a leader innovates
A manager maintains, while a leader develops
A manager focuses on systems and structures, whereas a leader‘s focus is on people.
A manager relies on control, but a leader inspires trust
A manager keeps an eye on the bottom line, while a leader has an eye on the horizon.
A manager does things right, a leader does the right thing.