Organizational Culture Typology
Students now that we have got an idea of what organizational culture is, today let us learn about the evolution of organizational culture ,also its function and Organizational Culture Typology .
Harrison (1972) and (1991) have given the following four Organizational Culture Typology .
Power Culture :
Power culture can be observed in small organizations and large conglomerates where there is centralized power. In this culture ‗results‘ are the basis of assessment of effectiveness, sometimes to the satisfaction of the central authority figure. In this culture, ends justify the means. There are both positive and negative aspects of this culture. On the positive side, the culture can help an organization become strong, dynamic, fast to respond to external demands. On the flip side, it often leads to staff dissatisfaction, dependence on the ability and decision making of the centralized power figure, dysfunctional conflict, and power lobbying. Only those members succeed who have a political bent of mind, power orientation and manipulativeness, and low need for security. Personal equation with the center and control over resources make people powerful and influential. [ Organizational Culture Typology ]
Role Culture :
Based on logic and rationality, this culture is often referred to as bureaucracy. The appointment is done on the basis of the ability of the persons to carry out the functions satisfactorily. There is security for employees and career progressions are predictable. Coordination, however, takes place at the top. Departments are assigned specific functional roles and their work is governed by authority, structure, and a set of procedures. The departments follow certain mechanisms and rules for decision – making and resolving conflicts. There are both merits and demerits of this culture. In role culture, importance is given to consistency, predictability, and stability, consequently, such a culture contributes to the creation of stable environments. But the drawback is that it makes adaptation to change difficult. Also, innovations, new ways of solving problems, and product and process innovations are discouraged. Such a culture is slow to respond to competitive pressures. However, some private sector organizations like IBM, TISCO, and public sector undertakings and banks have responded to globalization pressures and have resorted to voluntary retirement schemes, decentralization, disinvestment, and downsizing, [ Organizational Culture Typology ]
Task (Project Team) Culture :
Task culture is a small team culture which exists in organizations in the form of network organization or project – oriented matrix organization. In this culture, power and authority are distributed to the right people at the appropriate level and the focus is on performance and results to be achieved. There is empowerment for decision – making with regard to the task. The team is formed on the basis of capability rather than seniority or status. The work in such a culture involves ambiguity and high risk; and organizational control is through resource allocation, project budget, target setting, and monitoring. Most of the staff in such a culture are specialists or technical people. The group works on synergy and harness members‘ expertise in the form of creativity and efficiency for optimum utilization of resources to complete the task efficiently. There is synchronization of personal and organizational goals. [ Organizational Culture Typology ]
Personal Culture :
As the indicates, the individual is the focal point, and examples of this culture could be found in voluntary groups like workers‘ cooperative and residents‘ associations where a number of individuals decide to form a group to do their own thing. The culture exists only for the people concerned and the group does not have any super – ordinate goals. There may be an office backup in the form of a secretary. This culture is probably the only form of organization acceptable to some voluntary groups. The nature of power is consent which is derived from the expertise and personal influence. [ Organizational Culture Typology ]