All organizations establish a variety of goals and direct their energies and resources to achieve them. The human, as well as nonhuman resources (materials, machines, and money), have to be combined properly so as to achieve the goals of an organization. The various activities and efforts must be planned, organized and carried out in a systematic manner. Each department must be informed about the activities of other departments so that all of them work together smoothly. Coordination is the process of integrating the objectives and activities of separate units of an organization, to achieve organizational goals.
Definition of Co-ordination
In a literal sense, co-ordination is concerned with synchronizing and unifying the action of a group of people for realizing a common purpose. In business management, this term is concerned with the coordination of different types of activities. The term ‘co-ordination’ has been defined by various management experts as follows:
“Coordination, i.e., balancing and keeping the team together by ensuring a suitable allocation of working activities to the various members, and seeing that these are performed with due harmony among the members themselves.”
“Coordination is the orderly arrangement of group efforts to provide unity of action in pursuit of a common purpose.”
—Mooney and Reiley
“Coordination is the orderly synchronization of efforts of the subordinates to provide the proper amount, timing and quality of execution so that their unified efforts lead to the stated objectives, namely, the common purpose of the enterprise.”
Thus, we see that coordination is a process of integration. It involves an orderly pattern of group efforts on the enterprise towards the accomplishment of common objectives. The problem of co-ordination is concerned with the following:
1. Co-ordination between individuals in a group.
2. Co-ordination between groups of a department.
3. Co-ordination among various departments of an enterprise.
4. Co-ordination among various activities and operations.
5. External coordination