The following are the important co-ordination techniques which are widely used by modern management: 1. Co-ordination by the common purpose: The oldest, as well as the most important Co-ordination Techniques for achieving co-ordination, is the supervisor. The main duty of a supervisor is to see that his subordinates are working in an efficient manner. He directs them, commands them and controls their efforts. According to Webber, by commanding, managers and supervisors can co-ordinate the efforts of their instructions and by direction and motivation, they can co-ordinate their efforts. If the span of management is limited, this technique will be very effective in comparison to others.
In the words of L.A. Allen, “A manager, in managing, must co-ordinate the work for which he is accountable, by balancing, timing and integrating it.” 2. Co-ordination through managerial functions: Of the different phases of managerial functions, some aspects like communication, leadership and authority delegation also have unique contribution towards co-ordination. Effective communication is basic to proper co-ordination. Communication of information is necessary both for making adjustments in plans and for preparing programmes for future. 3. Co-ordination by simplified organisation:Organisation is a very important device or Co-ordination Techniques for achieving co-ordination. In the modern large-scale organisations, there is tendency towards over-specialisation. It leads to bureaucracy and division in different departments. So, some benefits of specialisation should be sacrificed and such an organisational structure should be developed in which the authority and functions of several departments will be clearly defined but interacting. Re-arrangement of departments may also be considered to bring about a greater harmony among the various wings of the organisation. 4. Harmonised programmes and policies: Excellent opportunities for co-ordination are provided by the process of planning. The plans prepared by different individuals and departments should be checked up for consistency. The management must ensure that all plans add up to the unified programme. 5. Co-ordination by group meetings: Group meetings are also effective for achieving a high quality of co-ordination. Such meetings bring the officials together and provide opportunities for co-ordination. 6. Co-ordination through liaison men: For external co-ordination it is a very important and a popular device or Co-ordination Techniques nowadays. Mostly large organisation employ liaison officers to maintain relations with government and other agencies. 7. Voluntary co-ordination: Co-ordination by self-co-ordination was proposed by A. Brown and Sinon. Co-ordination should not be imposed from the above. Ideal co-ordination is the voluntary co-ordination. This can be secured by installing dominant objectives among people, developing, generally accepted customs, encouraging informal contacts, providing for inter-personal and inter-departmental contacts and using committees for informal exchange of ideas and views.
Steps to Achieve Co-ordination
The following steps should be taken for achieving effective co-ordination: 1. Clearly defined goals:The goals or objectives of the enterprise should be laid down clearly. Every individual in the enterprise should understand the overall objectives and the contribution by his job to these objectives. Unity of purpose is a must for achieving proper co-ordination. 2. Precise and comprehensive programs and policies: Laying down well-defined programs and policies are another measure for achieving effective co-ordination. This brings uniformity of action because everybody understands the programs and policies which act as guides for taking any decision. 3. Clear lines of authority and responsibility: An enterprise is composed of several vertical and horizontal authority relationships. Authority flows from the top through various positions down to the level of operative workers. There is a line of authority in every enterprise which indicates as to who is accountable to whom. This line of authority and responsibility
should be clearly defined to achieve co-ordination. Clear-cut authority relationships help in reducing conflicts among different positions (particularly line and staff which is essential for sound co-ordination. 4. Effective communication: Effective communication is the key to proper co-ordination. The channels of communication
used in the enterprise should be reliable so that they are able to create proper understanding in the mind of the receiver.
Personal contacts should be encouraged as it is the most effective means of communication for achieving co-ordination. 5. Effective leadership and supervision: Management can achieve better co-ordination through effective leadership and supervision. Effective leadership ensures co-ordination both at the planning and the implementing stage. Effective supervision is also necessary to guide the activities of individuals in the proper direction. This will bring unity of action
which is essential to co-ordinate various organisational activities. 6. Cooperation: Co-ordination must be accompanied by cooperation. The individuals in the organisation must be willing to help each other voluntarily. Cooperation can be brought by keeping harmonious relations among the people in the organisation by encouraging informal contacts to supplement formal communication and using committees for informal
exchange of ideas and views at the top level. 7. Simplified organisation:In modern large-scale enterprises there is a tendency towards specification which creates problem of co-ordination. In such cases it is a closely related function or operation under the charge of one executive who acts as a co-ordinator. Reorganisation of various activities may be done to bring about greater harmony in the organisation.