Motivation Defined

Principle & Practice of Management

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Motivation Defined

The term “motivation” has been derived from the Latin word move which means to move. It represents the force that moves people and causes them to act. Management Motivation is something that motivates a person to action and continues him in the course of action enthusiastically. It is a psychological technique which executes the plans and policies through the efforts of others. However good the resources of an organisation may be, these cannot automatically result in the realisation of the aims of the business enterprise. Merely recruitment of the staff and allocation of duties amongst them cannot by itself complete the management process. Ultimately the most decisive factor is the human factor. Best performance can be had from the staff only by creating in them the necessary urge or desire to do so. Creation of this urge or desire or inculcation of the urge to give better performance is called Management motivation. This means making the workers take interest in the work. The manager can buy a man’s time, he can buy a man’s physical presence but the real difficulty is how to get his enthusiasm, initiative or loyalty to work. Management Motivation is able to generate in men the willingness to use their ability and perform the work.
Let us see some important definitions of motivation:
According to McFarland, “motivation refers to the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, striving or needs direct control or explain the behaviour of human beings.”
According to Flippo, “motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward.”
It is clear from the above definitions that motivation is nothing but an act of inducement, to achieve a certain goal. Management Motivation is a process consisting of (i) the motive; (ii) the needs, drives, desires, aspirations etc.; and (iii) attainment of the objectives.

Management Motivation

Characteristics of Motivation

On the analysis of the definition of motivation, we can drive the following characteristics of motivations:
1. Motivation is a psychological phenomenon: Management Motivation is an internal feeling which generates within an individual. Motivating factors are always unconscious but they are to be aroused by managerial action.
2. Motivation is based on needs: Needs may be consciously or unconsciously felt. Needs may be (a) fundamental needs such as food, clothes, shelter, etc. and (b) ego-satisfaction needs such as self-development, self-actualisation. These needs vary with individuals and with the same individual at different times.
3. Goals are the motivator: Management Motivation causes goal-directed behaviour, feeling of need by the person causes him to behave in such a way that he tries to satisfy himself. Goal and motives cannot be separated. Therefore, it is essential for the management to know employee’s goal to push him to work because a man works to achieve his goals. As soon as the goal is achieved, he would be no longer interested in work, so a new set of goods have to be set, and the individual has to be introduced to these new set of variables, thus interacting him enough to get motivated to work again with enthusiasm.
4. Motivations are different from satisfaction: Motivation implies a drive towards an outcome while satisfaction involves outcomes already experienced and achieved satisfaction is the contentment experienced when a desire is satisfied.
5. Motivation is a continuous process: Motivation is an unending process. Wants are innumerable and cannot be satisfied at one time. If one basic need is adequately satisfied for a given individual it loses power as a motivator. But other needs continue to emerge. As satisfaction of needs is an unending process, so the process of motivation is also unending.
6. Motivations are related to a person in totality: Person in totality, not in part, is motivated. A person’s basic needs are interrelated because each individual is an integrated organised whole.