Theory X is the traditional theory of human behaviour. According to this theory, workers are inherently lazy, passive and unambitious. Therefore, there is a need for control and direction over workers. People at work are to follow the directives of the management and cannot suggest what they think to be correct.
This theory is based on the following assumptions:
1. The average worker in an organisation basically dislikes work and by nature is indolent and avoids work whenever possible.
2. He is usually self-centered and he cares little for the organisational goals.
3. He is usually lazy and has no ambition.
4. He tries to avoid responsibility and only desires security.
5. The average worker actually prefers to be directed to being left on his own.
6. Because of the human nature of dislike for work, most of the worker must be forced, controlled, directed, threatened punished to get them to put adequate efforts towards the achievement of organisational behaviour.
Thus, management should rely more on discipline, punishment, close supervision, etc.