Entrepreneurs often have a theory of the business, which they may or may not document.
• Implicit strategies may exist only in the chief executive’s head
• Explicit Strategies are properly documented
Some plans are more Explicit Strategies than others.
With these in mind, Mintzberg identified eight styles of strategic management
Crafting emergent strategies
Managers cannot simply let emerging strategies take over. Why?
(a) Direction. The emergent strategy may be inappropriate for the long-term direction of the organisation and may have to be corrected.
(b)Resources. It may have future implications for resource use elsewhere: in most organisations, different parts of the business compete for resources.
(c)Managers might wish to build on the strategy by actively devoting more resources to it.
Mintzberg uses the metaphor of crafting strategy to help understand the idea. Strategies are shaped as they develop, with managers giving help and guidance, devoting more resources to some, exploiting new opportunities and responding to developments. For example, Honda’s management reacted to the emergent strategy, eventually, and shaped its development.Separating ‘thinking’ and ‘doing’ has the following result.
(a) A purely deliberate strategy prevents learning. For example, it is hard with deliberate strategies to ‘learn from mistakes’, or stumble by accident into strategic growth.
(b)A purely emergent strategy defies control. It may, in fact, be a bad strategy!
Deliberate strategies introduce strategic change as a sort of quantum leap in some organisations. In this case, a firm undergoes only a few strategic changes in a short period but these are very dramatic. The strategist must be able to recognise patterns and to manage the process by which emergent strategies are created. In other words, the strategist must be able to find strategies as well as invent them.