Strategic Management Processes

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Strategic Management Processes

I had already explained and described the historical evolution of business strategy and said that strategic management is carried out through a process of strategic management. So, you will find organisations devise various methods for strategy formulation. The strategic management formulation and implementation methods vary with product profile, company profile, the environment within and outside the organisation, and various other factors. Large organisations which use sophisticated planning use detailed strategic management models whereas smaller organisations where formality is low use simpler models. Small businesses concentrate on planning steps compared to larger companies in the same industry. Large firms have diverse products, operations, markets, and technologies and hence they have to essentially use complex systems. In spite of the fact that companies have different structures, systems, product profiles, etc, various components of models used for analysis of strategic management are quite similar.
You must have observed that different thinkers have defined business strategy differently, yet there are some common elements in the way it is defined and understood.The strategic management consists of different phases, which are sequential in nature.

Strategic Management

What are these Phases

There are four essential phases of strategic management process. In different companies these phases may have different, nomenclatures and the phases may have different sequences, however, the basic content remains same. The four phases can be listed as below.
1. Defining the vision, business mission, purpose, and broad objectives.
2.. Formulation of strategies.
3. Implementation of strategies.
4. Evaluation of strategies.
These phases are linked to each other in a sequence. It may not be possible to draw a clear line of difference between each phase, and the change over from one phase to another is gradual. The next phase in the sequence may gradually evolve and merge into the following phase. An important linkage between the phases is established through a feedback mechanism or corrective action. The feedback mechanism results in a course of action for revising, reformulating, and redefining the past phase. The process is highly dynamic and compartmentalization of the process is difficult. The change over is not clear and boundaries of phases overlap. My purpose of depicting this diagram is to assist you in remembering and recalling it with ease Exhibit Phases of Strategic Management Process
A strategic management process that could be followed in a typical organisation is presented in Fig.The process takes place in the following stages:
1. The Strategic Planner has to define what is intended to be accomplished (not just desired). This will help in defining the objectives, strategies and policies.
2. In the light of stage I, the result of the current performance of the organisation are documented.
3. The Board of Directors and the top management will have to review the current performance of the documented.
4. In view of the review, the organisation will have to scan the internal environment for strengths and weaknesses and the external environment for opportunities and threats.
5. The internal and external scan helps in selecting the strategic factors.
6. These have to be reviewed and redefined in relation to the Mission and Objectives.
7. At this stage a set of strategic alternatives and generated.
8. The best strategic alternative is selected and implemented through programme budgets and procedures.
9.Monitoring, evaluation and review of the strategic alternative chosen is undertaken in this mode. This can provide a feedback on the changes in the implementation if required. As can be seen, this provides a rational approach to strategic decision making and it can be successfully practised by Indian organisations, which now have to operate in a competitive environment.