The design and development of advertising follows the AIDA formula. The effectiveness of advertising depends upon to what extent the advertising message is received and accepted by the target audience.
Research has identified that an advertisement to be effective has to
i. Attract Attention
ii. Secure Interest
iii. Build Desire for the product and finally
iv. Obtain Action.
All advertisements obviously do not succeed on these counts. This is one solitary reason behind the great divergence between the number of people exposed to the advertisement and those who ultimately take the purchase decisions. At this stage, however, other elements of the marketing mix, especially distribution become crucial.
Advertisement communicates an idea, a message or a belief. An advertisement would be effective only if the media audience accepts that message and is motivated to take the requiredaction. Several models have been developed which have specifically identified the sequence of events, which must take place between receipt of the message and desired action.
A somewhat simplified model based on the identical principle of sequential stages of consumer action is known as AIDA model. Advertising as a communication medium can in most cases effectively perform the first three functions. In the case of direction advertising, it also must translate the desire into action, unaided by any other promotional instruments. In the case of indirect-action advertising, however, the action can be aided at the time of purchase by two-way communication between the intending buyer and the sales staff.
Let us examine the attention, interest, desire and action components in more detail.
The layout is the most important factor that directs attention to an advertisement. Typography and colors used in the layout can rivet us. The size of the advertisement also compels us to get attracted to it. Contrast by white space is a good attention getter. Movement is a vital element for getting attention. Movement can be physical or emotional. The position of the advertisement also adds to its attention value. Celebrities in the advertisement, dramatization; model selection, illustration all this contribute to attention.
Ad seen does not mean ad read. Mostly people see the illustrations and do not read the copy. Here illustrations have to work hard. They should, together with headlines must provoke further reading. The selection of the illustrations and its integration to life are thus very important. Even copy format is important for interest creation. A humorous copy works some people on by a scientific copy, and some. Here there is a dilemma for a copywriter. He has to satisfy maximum number of people so he has to search for a common denominator of interest.
The basic purpose of advertising is to create a desire for the product or service being advertised. It is a function of appeals used for the motivation of people. Vivid description or copy always helps. Buying motives, physiological as well as psychological, make people purchase products. The copy of the advertisement must kindle these motives. There are certain barriers here – certain reservations in the mind of customers. We have to overcome them. We have to convince by giving evidence, testimonials, endorsements, and facts and figures. On arousal, people become prone to buy the product.
The logical end of the desire aroused is to buy the product.
1. Products are associated with company.
2. The message is repeated.
3. Certain immediate action appeals are used.
There are six steps or movements towards the purchase of a product or service. The first two, awareness to knowledge, fall in the cognitive sphere of related behavioral dimension. It deals with the realm of thoughts. Advertising here provides essential information and facts. These advertisements are announcements, descriptive slogans, jingles, and sky writing and teaser campaigns.
The next two steps in the movement towards purchase are liking and preference. These have been linked with the affective sphere, which is the realm of emotions wherein the advertising changes attitudes and feelings. Advertisements falling in this category are: competitive advertisements, argumentative advertisements, advertisements with a strong rational message and image advertisements with status and glamour appeals.
The final two steps in the movement towards purchase are conviction and purchase. This is related to behavioral realm of motives. Here the advertisements stimulate or direct desires. Advertisements falling in this slot are: POP, retail store advertisements, last chance offers, price reduction appeals, testimonials, and prize scheme advertisements.
This is called Hierarchy of Effect (HOE) model.
Three models of message design and development: They are 1. AIDA model, 2. HOE: Hierarchy of Effects model, and 3. Communication model of Advertising.