As we have understood that the sender identifies the receiver(s) and develops a message, the basic of the sender is that the customer or the target audience should buy the product or the service. For this we must understand whether a particular message so created has been effective in reaching out to them.
So what makes an advertisement effective? Below are the key points on the effectiveness of a message.
1. Attract Attention
2. Secure Interest
3. Build Desire for the product
4. Obtain Action
The above has been formulated as the AIDA Model. Attention could be the form of the layout of a print advertisement or the way an advertisement is made in the form of moving pictures, the colors used, the models used and the copy written, the movements used and the contrasting element used.
We are bombarded by so many advertisements that there are a few we see and while a few we don’t. The advertisement, which arouses interest in us and provokes us to think or feel about a product, is what an advertiser looks at. It basically means to catch the eye of the public.
Desire would mean the buying motive. When you feel that you want to posses the particular product or be associated with it. Action would normally mean the acquisition of the product. Within the AIDA framework, Attention would refer to the cognitive stage, both Interest and Desire would relate to the affective stage and Action would be a behavioral activity. Within the framework of advertisements the following should be kept in mind:
· Understanding the Objective(s) of the advertisement (MISSION)
· Defining the Target Audience (MARKET)
· Understanding the Budget (MONEY)
· Understanding the Message (MESSAGE)
· The Media used for putting the advertisement (MEDIA)
· Seeing whether the advertisement was Effective (MEASUREMENT)
The above would commonly be termed as the 6 M’s of Advertising.
The Mission statement would refer to the Aim of your advertisement. Is to improve sales, is to launch a new product, it for recall, is it for some short term offers, is it to gain attention, etc. The Market analysis would incorporate the type of buyer you want to sell the product to. For a cosmetic company it is but natural they would show women and not men in their advertisement. For Horlicks they would show children having the product.
Money is the amount of budget constraint that the advertiser has in allocating the money between different medias and the expenditure to be incurred. For example, Procter & Gamble may allocate Rs. 2 crore for the advertisement of Tide detergent spread over one year.
What to say, how to say, who will say it and what type of appeals to be given in the message is what Message formulation is all about. Shahrukh Khan being the spokesperson for Hyundai Santro, the colors used in the car, the movements of the car and what the person should remember the car as are few of the elements to be kept in mind.
Star Plus, Zee TV, Star Movies, Times of India, Radio Mirchi, etc, are few of the choices where you could think of putting your advertisement. The people watching those medias are very crucial to the success of your advertisement being seen by your target audience.
You have spent Rs. 5 crore on your advertisement but do you think that your sales have improved or do you think the people have seen the advertisement? Measurement is precisely the way in which see as to whether your advertisement has been effective or not.
Advertising has a dark side to it too. The use of women to sell virtually everything and to have sexual overtures in an advertisement has been a contentious issue. Then showing one community in a bad light, like if you don’t put fairness cream then you would not get married have come under the microscope of the ethics committee.
Advertising involves lot of creativity and also marketing aptitude to be successful in this field. You have to keep your eyes and ears open for inspirations. After all great advertisements were not made in the think rooms. Shown below is a diagram of what advertising entails.