Communication fulfils three main functions within an organisation’s production and Operations management field: (1) transmitting information, (2) coordinating effort, and (3) sharing emotions and feelings. All these functions are vital to a successful organisation. Transmitting information is vital to an organisation’s ability to function. Coordinating effort within the organisation helps people work toward the same goals. Sharing emotions and feelings bonds teams and unites people in times of celebration and crisis. Effective communication helps people grasp issues, build rapport with coworkers, and achieve consensus. So, how can we communicate effectively? The first step is to understand the communication process. We all exchange information with others countless times a day, by phone, e-mail, printed word, and of course, in person. Let’s take a moment to see how a typical communication works using the Process Model of Communication as a guide. A Sender, such as a boss, co-worker, or customer, originates the Message with a thought. For example, the boss’s thought could be: “Get more printer toner cartridges!” The Sender encodes the Message, translating the idea into words. The boss may communicate this thought by saying, “Hey you guys, we need to order more printer toner cartridges.” The medium of this encoded Message may be spoken words, written words, or signs. The receiver is the person who receives the Message. The Receiver decodes the Message by assigning meaning to the words. In this example, our Receiver, Bill, has a to-do list a mile long. “The boss must know how much work I already have.” the Receiver thinks. Bill’s mind translates his boss’s Message as, “Could you order some printer toner cartridges, in addition to everything else I asked you to do this week…if you can find the time?” The meaning that the Receiver assigns may not be the meaning that the Sender intended because of such factors as noise. Noise is anything that interferes with or distorts the Message being transformed. Noise can be external in the environment (such as distractions) or it can be the Receiver. For example, the Receiver may be highly nervous and unable to pay attention to the Message. Noise can even occur within the Sender: the Sender may be unwilling to take the time to convey an accurate Message or the words she chooses can be ambiguous and prone to misinterpretation. Picture the next scene. The place: a staff meeting. The time: a few days later. The boss believes her Message has been received. “Are the printer toner cartridges here yet?” she asks. “You never said it was a rush job!” the Receiver protests. “But!” “But!” Miscommunications like these happen in the workplace every day. We’ve seen that miscommunication does occur in the workplace. But how does a miscommunication happen? It helps to think of the communication process. The series of arrows pointing the way from the Sender to the Receiver and back again can, and often do, fall short of their target.